WR1 Effective Learning Environments


Objective -  By the end of the lesson given instructions and Web sites, scholars will:

Assignment Description

Adults learn differently than children and adolescents.  Pedagogy is the study of how children learn; andragogy, a term coined by Malcolm Knowles a leader in adult learning theory, describes how adults learn.  Marcia Conner clearly compares and contrasts pedagogy and andragogy to describe those differences.  Dr. Billington's research further identifies the type of environment in which adult learn best.  This environment differs from the traditional classroom in a number of ways.  Maslow's Hierarchy of needs impacts both the environment and the process of learning. Compare means to discuss how the articles are similar.  Contrast means to discuss how the articles differ.  Discuss how Dr. Billington's approach aligns with the adult learning principle described by Ms. Conner.  Access and read the articles "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" from Psychology - The Search for Understanding by Janet A. Simons, Donald B. Irwin, and Beverly A. Drinnien, "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" by W. Huitt. "Andragogy + Pedagogy" Marcia Conner, and "Seven Characteristics of Highly Effective Adult Learning Programs" by Dorothy D. Billington, Ph.D.  Teaching English Language Learners in Career and Technical Education Programs discusses the nature of teaching and learning in Career and Technical Education (CTE).

Write a report in memo format.  Discuss how Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs impacts adult learners.  Include how the needs of English learners, and "special needs" adults such as adults with disabilities and senior adults, differ from average adult learners and the impact those needs have on the learning process as influenced by Maslow's hierarchy.  Compare and contrast differences between how adolescents and adults learn.  Does Maslow's hierarchy influence the learning process of adults and adolescents differently?  In what way do effective learning environments and teacher/student relationships vary?

Draw conclusions and discuss the relationship between Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, andragogy, and effective adult learning environments.  How are your conclusions supported by your own experiences as a student and an educator?  Be specific and support your conclusions with examples from your classroom or personal experience. Describe how the concepts in these articles are reflected in your own classroom.  Do not use vague references.  Avoid names and identifying information to preserve your students' privacy but explain the details of the example you are using.  Finally, discuss how your class could be improved by implementing additional concepts from these articles.  Site the article and specific theory.  Explain how you would apply the concept and the expected outcome.

Developing good writing skills as an educator is essential.  Do not summarize the reports, just reference them as you discuss your conclusions.  Be specific but succinct.  Your report should be 1.5 to 2 pages excluding the memo header. 

To earn an "A" on the assignment you must participate in the on-line class discussion via e-mail.  Use the distribution list provided by the instructor to send your report to the class-at-large.  Reports are due on the date indicated in the syllabus.  The discussion will take place in the week following the due date before the next assignment is due.  Think of this like a traditional in-class discussion except you are writing your comments and questions instead of speaking them.  You will read more than you will reply.  When you wish to comment or ask a question use the "reply to all" feature of your mail manager to send your message to the class-at-large.  The instructor will participate actively, and her comments will provide examples of what is expected of you.


Grading Criteria

This assignment is worth 10% of your grade. 

Reports meeting the following criteria will receive 9 points

Participation in the on-line discussion via e-mail 1 point



Billington, D.D. (1988). Ego development and adult education. Doctoral Dissertation, The Fielding Institute. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (7). (University Microfilms No. 88-16, 275).  Retrieved April 27, 2011, from, http://education.jhu.edu/newhorizons/lifelonglearning/workplace/articles/characteristics/index.html

Blank, W., & Hernandez-Gantes, V.M. (2009).  Teaching English language learners in career and technical education programs.  New York, NY:  Routledge

California Education Code

    Part 6, Chapter 3, Artcles 1-3  Adult Education

    Part 6, Chapter 1, Articles 1-8  Career and Technical Education

    Part 28, Chapter 5 Article 14.5 Distance Learning

    Part 28, Chapter 5, Article 15 Technology

Conner, M. L. Andragogy and pedagogy. Ageless Learner, 1997-2004. Retrieved November 28, 2009, from, http://agelesslearner.com/intros/andragogy.html

Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved November 28, 2009. from, http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/conation/maslow.html

Simons, J.A., Irwin, D.B., Drinnien, B.A. (1987). Psychology - the search for understanding. West Publishing Company, New York, NY. Retrieved January 3, 2012 from, http://chettourhorizonsforteaching.blogspot.com/2009/02/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs.html